Barium sulphate

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Barium sulphate

Barium is a soft, reactive, silvery-white, alkaline earth metal, somewhat resembling metallic calcium. Sir Humphry Davy first isolated it in The periodic table lists the alkaline earth metals from lightest to heaviest as beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. You can prepare it through double-displacement reactions such as the following:. Barium sulfate is remarkably stable and cannot be converted to something else using this sort of reaction.

Barium sulfate is white to pale yellow in color and is nonflammable, with a melting point of 1, degrees Celsius. It possesses an unusually high specific gravity of 4. Particles of barium sulfate are considered inert, so in cases of inhalation, it is labeled as a "nuisance dust. This makes it useful for quick flow-through catalytic reactions employing partially deactivated palladium called Lindlar's catalyst.

In general, barium salts are quite water-soluble. Since barium sulfate does not dissolve in water, no such ions form. Since the barium atom is large and heavy, it absorbs X-rays quite well.

Since the sulfate also possesses no toxicity, it is used as a radio-opaque or radio-contrast agent in gastrointestinal testing. A barium "milkshake" or "meal," a drinkable aqueous suspension, is consumed gradually, beginning 90 minutes to two hours before testing begins.

Side effects may include nausea, diarrhea and headache. Barium sulfate is used in oil-drilling mud, textiles, pigments, photographic papers, ceramics and glasses, artificial ivory, and battery plate pastes. Although definitely stable and safe for ordinary use, barium sulfate can react explosively if mixed with aluminum and heated.

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In a fire, barium sulfate generates toxic sulfur oxides. If improperly made, such as in a famous incident in Brazil, it can cause death. This incident stemmed from illegal preparation, resulting in contamination by the water-soluble carbonate.

He furthered his education through the University of Virginia's Citizen Scholar Program program, taking many courses in organic and quantum chemistry. He has written technical articles since About the Author. Photo Credits. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.Barium sulfate suspensionoften simply called bariumis a contrast agent used during X-rays.

Side effects include constipationdiarrheaappendicitisand if inhaled inflammation of the lungs. Barium sulfate has been known since the Middle Ages.

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Barium sulfate suspensions are provided by a radiologist or radiographer in advance of, or during a CT scan or fluoroscopic study to allow for better visualization of the gastrointestinal tractsuch as in upper or lower gastrointestinal series. In upper gastrointestinal seriesthe patient is instructed to take nothing by mouthwhich means to abstain from eating and drinking fastingwith the exception of drinking the barium sulfate suspension.

The amount of time for this fast may vary, depending on the instructions given by the imaging facility and the area of the body to be scanned, but generally lasts for several hours prior to the scan.

The patient generally skips one meal, along with abstaining from all liquids, clear or otherwise, during this time. For a Barium Swallow or Dysphagiagram the barium is consumed after the study begins to discern if the patient has difficulties swallowing or masticating. Consumption is paced, beginning two hours before the scan is to occur, with levels marked on the provided container indicating how much is to be consumed between each of the two hours prior to the test.

A small portion of the suspension is reserved for the minutes just before the test, to ensure that as much of the gastrointestinal tract as possible is coated. After the scan is complete, the patient is encouraged to eat and drink normally, with special attention to plenty of fluids. The barium sulfate is excreted through defecationso extra fluid intake helps prevent constipationwhich is a possible side effect see Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library for an example of a possible patient education instruction sheet.

Some patients with allergies or sensitive stomachs may choose to discuss alternatives to the barium sulfate suspension with their radiologist, but most patients find the common side effects more of an annoyance than a serious problem.

barium sulphate

Among the possible side effects, listed on MedlinePlus are nausea and diarrheawhich may begin as soon as 15 minutes after consumption begins and may persist through the day after the test is completed. Other side effects may include a feeling of weakness, pale skin, ringing in the ears, constipation, and vomiting.

Patients may be strongly encouraged to avoid vomiting, as expelling a substantial quantity of the suspension may void its effect on the CT scan and produce unusable results, requiring a retest. As with most medications, if any severe side effects are experienced the patient is encouraged to contact their doctor or local poison control center immediately.

Oral barium sulfate suspensions are sometimes described as having the consistency of a very thick glass of milk, or a very thin milkshake. Roscoe Miller, in his article, "Flavoring Barium Sulfate", noted that taste thresholds vary per person, [13] and patient toleration of the medicine also varies. The suspension is typically homogeneous, smooth, and white in color. If the test requires the suspension to travel quickly through upper gastrointestinal tract it may be given chilled.

Many preparations of barium sulfate have added flavors to make them easier to tolerate. In general, the flavor is considered unpleasant, and is dependent on the exact makeup of the drink.

Because of the ease of the actual test, the paced two-hour consumption of the barium sulfate suspension is often considered the worst part of a CT scan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Barium sulfate suspension 3D model of barium sulfate.

Elsevier Health Sciences. World Health Organization. Archived PDF from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 31 December Greenwood Publishing Group. Archived from the original on CRC Press. Chapter World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list Geneva: World Health Organization. International Drug Price Indicator Guide. MedlinePlus Drug Information.Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex.

In deciding to use a diagnostic test, any risks of the test must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. Also, other things may affect test results.

Barium sulfate

For this test, the following should be considered:. Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of barium sulfate oral suspension in children 12 years of age and older.

However, safety and efficacy of this medicine have not been established in children younger than 12 years of age. Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of barium sulfate oral paste in children 6 months of age and older. However, safety and efficacy of this medicine have not been established in children younger than 6 months of age. Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of barium sulfate oral suspension or paste in the elderly.

However, elderly patients are more likely to have kidney, liver, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving this medicine. Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription over-the-counter [OTC] medicine.

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur.

Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this diagnostic test. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:. All rights reserved. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.

Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version.Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus tube that connects the mouth and stomachstomach, and intestine using x-rays or computed tomography CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body.

Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or intestine with a material that is not absorbed into the body so that diseased or damaged areas can be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan.

Barium sulfate

Barium sulfate comes as a powder to be mixed with water, a suspension liquida paste, and a tablet. The powder and water mixture and the suspension may be taken by mouth or may be given as an enema liquid that is instilled into the rectumand the paste and tablet are taken by mouth. Barium sulfate is usually taken one or more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan. If you are using a barium sulfate enema, the enema will be administered by medical staff at the testing center.

If you are taking barium sulfate at home, take it exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often or at different times than directed. Shake the liquid well before each use to mix the medication evenly.

If you are given a powder to mix with water and take at home, be sure that you are also given directions for mixing and that you understand these directions. Ask your doctor or the staff at the testing center if you have any questions about mixing your medication. You will be given specific directions to follow before and after your test. You may also be told to use laxatives to clear the barium sulfate from your body after your test. Be sure that you understand these directions and follow them carefully.

Ask your doctor or the staff at the testing center if you are not given directions or if you have any questions about the directions you are given.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. Your doctor or the staff at the testing center will tell you what you may eat and drink the day before your test. Follow these directions carefully.

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If you were given barium sulfate to take at home and you forgot to take a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. Tell the staff at the testing center if you did not take the barium sulfate at the scheduled time. Barium sulfate may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking or after receiving this medication. If you are given barium sulfate to take at home, keep the medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children.

Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture not in the bathroom. You may be told to refrigerate the medication to chill it before you take it. Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet.

Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily.

To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location — one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, immediately call emergency services at It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription over-the-counter medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements.

You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies. Barium Sulfate pronounced as ba' ree um. Why is this medication prescribed?Barium sulfate is a contrast agent.

Barium sulfate works by coating the inside of your esophagus, stomach, or intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or other radiologic x-ray examination.

Barium sulfate is used to help diagnose certain disorders of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines. Before your medical test, tell your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a contrast agent, or if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to barium sulfate or another contrast agent. The radiation used in x-rays and CT scans may be harmful to an unborn baby. Before your medical test, tell your doctor if you are pregnant. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction : hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

barium sulphate

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Other drugs may affect barium sulfate, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products.

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Use the medicine exactly as directed. Barium sulfate comes in tablets, paste, cream, or liquid forms. In some cases, barium sulfate is taken by mouth. The liquid form may also be used as a rectal enema. If you receive barium sulfate as a rectal enema, a healthcare professional will give you the medicine at the clinic or hospital where your testing will take place.

You may need to begin taking oral barium sulfate at home, a day before your medical test. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully. Dissolve the powder in a small amount of water. Stir and drink this mixture right away. Add a little more water to the glass, swirl gently and drink right away.

Shake the oral suspension liquid to take by mouth before you measure a dose. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device not a kitchen spoon. Carefully follow your doctor's instructions about what to eat or drink within the hour period before your test.

Drink plenty of liquids to prevent constipation. Store barium sulfate at room temperature away from heat and moisture. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use. Drugs A-Z provides drug information from Everyday Health and our partners, as well as ratings from our members, all in one place.Medically reviewed by Drugs.

Barium sulfate is a contrast agent. Barium sulfate works by coating the inside of your esophagus, stomach, or intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or other radiologic x-ray examination.

Barium sulfate is used to help diagnose certain disorders of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines. Before your medical test, tell your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a contrast agent, or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. You should not use barium sulfate if you are allergic to barium sulfate or another contrast agent. The radiation used in x-rays and CT scans may be harmful to an unborn baby. Before your medical test, tell your doctor if you are pregnant. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.

Use the medicine exactly as directed. Barium sulfate comes in tablets, paste, cream, or liquid forms. In some cases, barium sulfate is taken by mouth. The liquid form may also be used as a rectal enema.

If you receive barium sulfate as a rectal enema, a healthcare professional will give you the medicine at the clinic or hospital where your testing will take place. You may need to begin taking oral barium sulfate at home, a day before your medical test. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully. Dissolve the powder in a small amount of water. Stir and drink this mixture right away. Add a little more water to the glass, swirl gently and drink right away.

Shake the oral suspension liquid to take by mouth before you measure a dose. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device not a kitchen spoon.This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

Take this medicine by mouth. Your health care professional will tell you how to prepare for your test. If you have not received instructions or if you do not understand them, check with your health care professional before the test. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children.

While this medicine may be prescribed for children for selected conditions, precautions do apply. Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once. If you cannot follow the steps to prepare for your test, tell your health care professional.

barium sulphate

The test may need to be re-scheduled. Interactions are not expected. You may or may not be able to take your regular medications during the time of preparation for your procedure.

Ask your doctor or health care professional for advice. This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

Follow all instructions from your health care professional to properly prepare for your test. Serious side effects of the test are rare, but report an unexplained fever, blood in the stool, or significant abdominal pain promptly. After the test, drink plenty of water to help avoid constipation and to help flush the barium out.

You may have light or white stools for a few days after the test. Your stools will go back to normal color within a few days. Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome :.

Barium sulfate

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C 59 and degrees F. Keep container tightly closed. Do not freeze. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information.

If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.

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Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Barium Sulfate oral suspension.

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What is this medicine? They need to know if you have any of these conditions: asthma difficulty swallowing eczema or a history of significant allergies intestinal blockage or perforation intestinal or stomach cancer recent rectal biopsy tracheoesophageal fistula an unusual or allergic reaction to Barium Sulfate, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives pregnant or trying to get pregnant breast-feeding How should I use this medicine?

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.


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